Entrepreneurs planning to set up a business in Bulgaria can opt for one of five main company types that this country in Eastern Europe regulates for corporations with commercial activities:

  • company with limited liability (LLC);
  • joint stock company (JSC);
  • limited partnership (LP);
  • general partnership (GP);
  • share-limited partnership (SLP).

Features of the most widely used Bulgarian company types

The most preferred entities for business activities are the limited liability and the joint stock companies. The two types have similarities and differences. … Read more

A sole proprietorship is also called a one-man business or sole trader. Registering such a business guarantees your full independence as its owner and founder. The proprietorship can have more members working for it and employ staff, but its owner is only one.

Establish a Sole Proprietorship in the Netherlands

A sole proprietorship can be established without a deed prepared by a notary. It is mandatory, however, to register the business at the Trade Registry. Each private individual can establish … Read more

The Dutch government obtains its revenue mostly by taxation. The Financial Ministry implements the national legislation on taxes and the Belastingdienst deals with its actual execution. You must pay taxes if you generate income while staying in Holland.

A brief history of taxation in Holland

Dutch people started paying taxes centuries ago. In the 1800’s the government guaranteed its income through taxation of indispensable goods like soap, firewood, salt, meat, grain, wine, coal, wool and peat. Back then all people … Read more

Below are the answers to the most common questions regarding the 30% reimbursement ruling in the Netherlands:

When should I apply for the 30% reimbursement ruling?

Expats may apply for this tax advantage within 4 months after the conclusion of their employment contracts. For those applying after the 4-month interval, the ruling becomes effective on the month after the submission of the application. People who have been hired in the Netherlands for some time can also take advantage of the … Read more

Characteristics of the Dutch Professional Partnership

In the context of the Dutch law, the “maatschap” or professional partnership is different from the other forms of partnership (general and limited) as it represents a cooperation of professionals, e.g. accountants, physicians, lawyers, dentists or accountants, and its main goal is not the joint performance of business activities. The partners in this form of cooperation are called “maten”. Each “maat” participates in the partnership by contributing personal assets, effort and/or capital. The aim … Read more

All international citizens living and working in the Netherlands need to contact the local tax authorities (Belastingdienst) at some point.

Functions of the Dutch tax office

The local tax office Belastingdienst is the Dutch governmental structure in charge of assessing and collecting taxes and excise and customs duties. The Belastingdienst, as part of the Financial Ministry also controls the distribution of allowances, e.g. unemployment and healthcare benefits.

Expat services in the Belastingdienst

Most international residents contact the tax office for … Read more

Every Dutch company is required to subscribe at the Trade Registry of the Chamber of Commerce. This is a necessary prerequisite for VAT registration and fulfilment of other financial duties. The procedure is mandatory for all types of legal entities, including private limited companies, companies with limited liability, foundations and associations. Registration at the Chamber of Commerce is also mandatory for partnerships (e.g. general partnerships) and sole proprietors. The procedure for subscription at the Trade Registry involves the payment … Read more

Franchising is a contractual mechanism through which an entity (franchisor) issues a paid license for use of its business practices and systems and/or its commercial name to another entity (franchisee).

Dutch laws on franchise agreements

The Dutch legislation does not address franchise agreements specifically, so the general provisions of the law on contracts and competition applies. Franchising agreements are usually complex and are therefore concluded in writing. One should consider the following common principles when preparing a franchise agreement under … Read more

The Venootschap Onder Firma (VOF) or General Partnership is a company established by a minimum of 2 members through an agreement registered with the Commercial Chamber (Trade Registry). This entity is commonly translated as “company with partners”. The General Partnership should not be confused with the Professional Partnership which represents cooperations of professionals where the main goal is not the joint performance of business activities.

Main features of the Dutch VOF (General Partnership)

Each of the partners must make a … Read more

One of the first bureaucratic matters internationals need to take care of in the Netherlands is the BSN number, in Dutchburgerservicenummer”. BSN, or also known as Sofi number in the past is a social service number used in the country.

 What purpose does the Dutch BSN / Sofi number serve?

The BSN or Civic Service Number is a unique number issued to everyone living in the country. It is a form of registration intended to assist all interactions … Read more